معلومة

بهو فيلا سان ماركو في ستابيا



فيلا سان ماركو

لا فيلا سان ماركو، che prende il nome da una cappella che sorgeva nei suoi pressi nel 1700، si distende sull’area nord-orientale della collina di فارانو، حوالي 50 متري سول ليفيلو ديل ماري.
فيلا Fu la prima ad essere esplorata في età borbonica negli anni compresi tra il 1750 e il 1754، quindi، spoliata degli affreschi e delle suppellettili meglio Conservati، fu riseppellita dopo che le sue strutture furono rilevate dall’ingegnere كارل ويبر.
Al Momento dell’eruzione del 79 d.C. نيلا فيلا إيرانو في كورسو لافوري دي ريستورو دوفوتي آي داني كوباتي دال تيريموتو ديل 62 دي سي. e، più probabilmente ai fenomeni sismici che precedettero l’eruzione.
La Villa rientra nella categoria delle ville urbane Residenziali in quanto in essa si fondono le caratteristiche della domus di città e dell’abitazione di فيليججياتورا.

La superficie globale del complesso è di 11.000 متر مربع.، di cui 6.000 in luce e si presenta articolata in cinque nuclei: quartiere del vestibolo e dell’atrio con annesso quartiere di servizio، quartiere termale، area del peristilio، area del loggiato superiore، ingresso monumentale sul decumano (attualmente interrato).
لينغريسو ديلا فيلا إميت نيلأتريو، dove il tetto aperto è sorretto da quattro Colonne ioniche: su di esso si aprono il لاراريو، l’altare della casa in onore dei Lari، che aveva un ruolo centrale nella vita delle famiglie romane، quattro كوبيكولا ovvero le stanze da letto delle persone che vivevano effettivamente nella villa e una scaletta che conduce al سوبر بيانو، probabilmente destinato ad ambienti servili.
Il suo primo ingresso، noto grazie ai rilievi eseguiti dal Weber، consteva in un ampio cortile circondato su tre lati da un porticato formato da pilastri. Dal lato occidentale si accedeva al tablino mentre sul lato meridionale si aprivano una serie di ambienti، tutti di Dimili simili، molto limitate، forse use come celle o magazzini. Nell’angolo sud-occidentale del porticato c’era unico grande ambiente al cui interno sembrerebbe essere stato ricavato un piccolo stanzino.
Dall’atrio si الانضمام إلى الله كوتشينا ه أ الأمم المتحدة ampio corridoio con larghe finestre che danno su un piccolo giardino triangolare، فيريداريومتشي كوندوس آل quartiere termale، la zona più privata della casa. Quest’ultimo، أبعاد مختلفة تشمل il frigidarium، per i bagni in aqua fredda، il كاليداريوم، destinato ai bagni في أكوا كالدا و ai bagni di vapore e il ماء ساخن، لكل أنا bagni في أكوا تيبيدا. L’ingresso è costituito da un piccolo atrio decorato con scene di amorini lottatori e pugili. Il calidarium، con una grande vasca originariamente rivestita di marmo، period il Principale bagno caldo della zona termale: quasi il suo intero meccanismo si è Conservation in Questa villa. حقبة L’intera superficie coperta da Cemento غير نافذ لجميع "عصر riscaldata da una caldaia disposta al centro la quale veniva المستمر ريفورنيتا دي ليجنا داجلي schiavi. أون باغنو كالدو نيلا بروبريا فيلا إيدج أونو ديجلي سترومنتي دي كوي إيل بادرون بوتيس ديسبورير لكل انطباعي أنا العملاء esso aveva un sistema di بورت دوبي لكل trattenere l’aria calda all’interno e tenere fuori l’aria fredda. Accanto al frigidarium e al calidarium c’erano la فلسطين انترنا كوبرتا e il tepidarium، il cui pavimento period sostenuto da suspensurae، ovvero pilastrini di sostegno، per il passaggio dell’aria calda.

انضم Da qui si إلى alla parte più spettacolare della villa، un ampio جياردينو ملف porticato ombreggiato da quattro di بلاتاني che ripetono la posizione di originari platani antichi ed una بيسينا مركز لونجا حوالي 30 متري. Sui tre lati del giardino vi è un portico Colonnato، le cui pareti sono decorate da un alto zoccolo nero con al di sopra piccoli riquadri di ville marittime e scene di giardini segreti، molti dei quali sono stati staccati nel XVIII secolo dai Bai Bio في fondo al peristilio si trovano alcuni ambienti di سوجيورنو، ورائع وفتحات واسعة مع أرقى.
Un’incredibile caratteristica di Questa villa è che، dopo l’atrium، non ci sono stanze da letto private: عصر una sorta di parco di divertimenti، attrezzata con giardini، piscine e tantissime stanze dandidamente decorate per convertare e riposare.
L’ultimo Settore della villa è costituito da un ampio التمعج: un grande giardino con فيستا سول ماري، circondato da un portico decorato con alcuni tra gli affreschi più belli fra quelli conosciuti del tempo dei Romani. Le pareti oggi Conservano in position poche tracce dell’originale decorazione، perché la maggior parte degli affreschi è stata spostata neiositi dell ' Antiquarium Stabiano.
Se il tema Principale delle pareti age rappresentato dall'amore، il soffitto invece Age decorato in maniera partolarmente complessa، articolata e ricca: una serie di grandi quadri mitologici erano incorniciati da ricchissime fasce، al cui interno trivavor posti .
لا فيلا ، في الأصل ، عصر collegata all’impianto urbano attraverso un ingresso monumentale che si affacciava sul decumano، scavato nel Settecento rilevato e interrato.
Attualmente la posibilità di riportare in luce parte di Questo Settore costituisce un elemento fondamentale per una Definitiva riorganizzazione dell’area archeologica.


تنقيب APAHA في Stabiae 2012

شهدت الأسابيع الأربعة بين 18 يونيو و 14 يوليو 2012 موسم العمل الميداني الثاني للبرنامج المتقدم للتاريخ القديم والفن (APAHA) ، البرنامج الأثري الذي يديره البروفيسور فرانشيسكو دي أنجيليس (تاريخ الفن والآثار) والبروفيسور ماركو مايورو (التاريخ) ) وبرعاية جامعة كولومبيا و H2CU ، مركز الشرف للجامعات الإيطالية.

بعد الموسم التجريبي لعام 2011 ، وسعت APAHA نطاقها من خلال إشراك الطلاب الدوليين. هذا العام ، بالإضافة إلى خريجي جامعة كولومبيا والطلاب الجامعيين المتقدمين ، ضمت مجموعة المشاركين أيضًا طلابًا من Freie Universität في برلين وكذلك من Università del Molise. بقيادة المدير الميداني تاكو تيربسترا ، قام المنقبون بالتحقيق في جوانب جديدة لفيلا سان ماركو في ستابيا ، أي الفيلا الإمبراطورية الرومانية في منطقة فيزوف حيث بدأت APAHA العمل في عام 2011. نظرًا لحجم مجموعة هذا العام ، كان من الممكن تنظيم ثلاث فرق مختلفة ، كل منها كان مسؤولاً عن منطقة منفصلة.

واصل أولهم استكشاف نظام إدارة المياه في ساحة الخدمة التي كانت قد خضعت بالفعل للتحقيق في عام 2011: على وجه الخصوص ، كشفت عن جزء كبير آخر من قنوات المياه والمصارف القادمة من قطاعات مختلفة من الفيلا ، من بينها الأذين والحمامات والمراحيض. عمل الفريق الثاني في الشارع المجاور للفيلا من أجل وضع التاريخ المعماري للمبنى في سياق التضاريس الأوسع لمستوطنة Stabiae: كانت أكثر الاكتشافات إثارة هي البلاط الذي يعود تاريخه إلى القرن السادس الميلادي. قبل الميلاد التي تؤكد أهمية المرحلة القديمة للموقع وهي أول دليل إيجابي للوجود المبكر للمباني الأثرية هناك. قام الفريق الثالث بحفر جدار محيط كان قد تم طمسه عندما تم توسيع الفيلا في منتصف القرن الأول الميلادي: لم يكن الوقت كافياً لإكمال التحقيق في هذا الهيكل ، والذي من المرجح أن يكون حاسماً لفهم كيفية عمل الفيلا تم تطويره بمرور الوقت.

ندوات ما بعد ساعات العمل وورش العمل والرحلات الميدانية في عطلة نهاية الأسبوع تزيد من إثراء تجربة أي شخص. كانت المناقشات المجتمعية حول الأدلة المادية نقطة انطلاق ممتازة لمعالجة الأسئلة التاريخية الواسعة. علاوة على ذلك ، فإن مجموعة وجهات النظر المتعلقة بالمجالات المختلفة - التاريخ السياسي والاجتماعي والاقتصادي والنقوش وتاريخ الفن والهندسة المعمارية والأدب والأساطير - قدمت رؤى جذابة ، وغير متوقعة في كثير من الأحيان ، لثقافة كامبانيا القديمة ، وسمح بمزيد من التفصيل. فهم فيلا سان ماركو في سياقها الأصلي.

جاء العديد من العلماء للزيارة وأعجبوا بموقع الحفريات ، ومن بينهم بيتينا بيرغمان ، وكارل هاينز بيست ، وجون بودل ، وهوارد بيرنز ، وتوماس فروليش ، وويليام هاريس ، وإريك بولر.


بهو فيلا سان ماركو في Stabiae - التاريخ


E 'una villa d'otium romana che prende il nome da una cappella dedicata a San Marco، costruita nel XVII sec. فيلا nella zona della، ormai totalmente coperta. Questa meraviglia si estendeva لكل حوالي 11.000 متر مربع ، دي كوي منفرد 6.000 riportati alla luce ، la più grande villa d'otium dell'antica Campania.

La struttura fu esplorata per la prima volta dai Borboni tra il 1749 e il 1782 e، dal benemerito رئيس e grande studioso Libero D'Orsi، tra il 1950 e il 1962. Era ancora in ottimo stato di Conservazione grazie ai cinque m di cenere e lapilli dell'eruzione che la sommersero totalmente.

La Villa venne edificata in età augustea، poi ampliata con l'aggiunta di ambienti panoramici، il grande giardino e la piscina nell'età claudia.

يمكنك الحصول على قدر أكبر من النرجس ، وحرية الوصول إلى دليل arricchito ، و cosa non inusuale presso i romani ، و sulla base di alcuni bolli ritrovati su delle tegole.

يمكنك الحصول على فرصة شراء alla famiglia dei Vettii، i quali avevano dei sepolcri poco distanti dalla costruzione. أنا Vettii ، erano oltre che a Pompei ، anche a Grumentum ، antico pagus. Nelle antiche carte Viggiano è Viziano: quindi il nome deriverebbe da Vettius o Vectius e la famiglia Vezziana fiorì nella città di Grumento. Nei suoi marmi si legge: Vettia Cn. فيلما & # 8230 Cn. فيتيوس.

L'ingresso della villa è posto a cinque metri di profondità: passaggio che collegava l'ingresso all'atrio aveva delle panche تأتي sala d'attesa per essere ricevuti dal proprietario. عصر L'atrio affrescato con una zoccolatura in nero e zona mediana in rosso con raffigurazioni di centauri e pelli di pantere.

آل سنترو ديل أتريو السادس عصر الأمم المتحدة ، إي لونغو لو باريتي لاتيرالي سي أبريفانو تري كوبيكولا ، كون أونا بيكولا سكالا تشي كوندوسيفا آل بيانو سوبروريور ، كرولاتو سيغيويتو ديلروزيوني. preziosi ، molto in voga in età Flavia per risparmiare l'alto costo dei marmi. Restano inoltre i basamenti per una cassaforte andata perduta.

La cucina ، posta alle spalle dell'atrio ، عصر الفسيحة e rettangolare ، con un grosso bancone في muratura su quattro archi ، un piano cottura in Frammenti laterizi e una grande vasca. عصر La Pavimentazione في cocciopesto e le pareti ، و rivestite di intonaco grezzo ، و Conservano dei graffiti lasciati dagli schiavi: una nave a remi، dei conti della spesa، due gladiatori e un poema di dodici righe.

Erano collegati alla cucina un magazzino e altri ambienti un tempo diaetae، infatti sontuosamente decorate، che in l'età flavia، per la costruzione del peristilio، furono ridotte e useizzate come Depi o cubicula.

Questi ambienti presentano un pavimento musivo in tassellato bianco e nero e all pareti una zoccolo nero con la parte superiore in giallo ocra، in terzo stile pompeiano. Sulla destra dell'atrio c'è tablinio ، decorato in IV stile (famoso per l'inserimento di architetture fantastiche e per la grande cinicità) ، con zoccolo rosso a ghirlande e animali، mentre la pavimentazione è in tassellato bianco delimitato da due fasce in نيرو.

Dal tablinio parte un breve corridoio، pavimentato in cocciopesto، che porta a un cortile porticato dove si apre l'ingresso dalla strada alla villa، cioè le fauces. العصر القشري La porta d'accesso al cortile in legno، ovviamente bruciata dall'eruzione، ed è stata sostituita col suo calco in gesso.

Dalla Villa Sono emerse una statua in bronzo di Mercurio، un corvo a grandezza naturale che doveva guarnire una fontana، come indica la scia di calcare lasciata dall'acqua sulla statuetta، e un bellissimo candelabro di bronzeo.

ستانزا 29
Negli scavi del 2008 sono stati rinvenuti alcuni ambienti sconosciuti all mappe borboniche، cioè una scala، un sentiero pedonale، un giardino con al centro un grosso olmo، due latrine، un ambiente con letto، lavabo e piano di cottura، e un piccola cassetta contenente una moneta، una spatola e un bottone d'osso.

بيريستيليو كولوناتو

حقبة viridiarum un giardino ornamentale collocato in uno spazio del peristilio، composto di aiuole delimitate da canalette o da steccati di canne o assicelle e poteva essere monumentalizzato mediante arredo da giardino: statane، fontane، a volte un bacino centrale إلخ.

حقبة viridiarum uno spazio partolarmente confortevole e centrale della vita domestica، specialmente nella stagione calda. دي سوليتو كويستو جياردينيتو غير سوبارافا أنا 100 م كيو أوبيتافا ألمينو أون بايو دي ألبيري إي / سسبوجلي ، سوبراتوتو دي إربي بروفوميت. Poteva ospitare il sacello dei Lari.

كاليداريوم
Si accede alle terme tramite un atrio، decorato con eroti lottatori e pugili، include il tepidarium، il frigidarium، la palestra e il calidarium، Quest'ultimo munito di piscina di m 7x5 e profonda un me mezzo، che si raggiunge attraverso dei scalini بيترا.

Asportando parte del fondo della piscina (il che fa arguire la contenza negli scavi)، è emersa una grande fornace in mattoni alimentata a legna، raggiungibile da un corridoio sotterraneo، che scaldava una grande caldaia in bronzo، i cui vapori باريتي تراميت توبي دي تيراكوتا ، scaldando tutta la stanza pavimentata in marmo.

Dalle terme متنوع كوندوكونو في basso a ridosso della costa، ​​dove si godeva di una bellissima vista panoramica.

La caldaia، un الهائلة contenitore di bronzo decorato، venne asportata nel 1798 dallo studioso Lord Hamilton per essere trasportata al museo di Londra، insieme a molti reperti pompeiani include dal conte di pianura Grassi chegio poco italianamente la glieliave vidilette، فو كاريكاتا ، لا كولوسوس ، نوفراغي.

Il grande peristilio è circondato da un lungo porticato con al centro una piscina Lunga ben 36 me larga Sette، con un ninfeo all'estremità، in parte ancora da esplorare، decorato con affreschi raffiguranti Nettuno، Venere eiversi atleti، asportati dai Borbone المتحف الأثري النازي في نابولي والمتحف كوندي دي شانتيلي ، في فرنسا ، في كل سوليتو غراند أموري لكل من يباع في مدينة نابولي والمتحف الإيطالي.

Nel giardino del peristilio c'erano dei platani che avevano dai Settantacinque ai centocinque anni. Infatti gli archeologi analizzando gli strati vulcanici hanno scoperto permonte di radici e ، تأتي avvenuto لكل من calchi degli umani ، vi è stato versato liquido liquido ottenendo il calco delle radici.

La prima dieta è decorata في IV stile con le raffigurazioni di:

- 1) Perseo con ali ai piedi che mostra la testa di Medusa ،
- 2) un'offerente، (di sesso femminile)
- 3) una musa di spalle con la lira ،
- 4) إيفيجينيا ،
- 5) أونا فيجورا نودا
- 6) una donna che scopre una pisside (scatola cilindrica con coperchio) ،
- 7) sul soffitto c'è una Nike con في مانو لا بالما ديلا فيتوريا.
- 8) Nella seconda dieta è raffigurata Europa rapita dal toro ،
- 9) Nella terza dieta restano Frammenti di un giovane disteso su un triclinio con accanto un'etera.

ميلبومين (10)

Altre stanze di rappresentanza، in parte crollate، si aprono sul ciglio della collina، in posizione panoramica، con rivestimento di marmo nella parte inferiore e un affresco in quella superiore.

Le pareti del peristilio sono affrescate ، تعال إلى عصر تردد all'epoca ، con zoccolatura nera e riquadri in rosso e ocra ، mentre la Pavimentazione è a mosaico bianco ، Elegante bordato nei pressi delle Colonne a disegni geometrici in bianco e nero.

- 15) شخصية مستحقة femminili che rappresentano la Primavera e l'Autunno con intorno degli amorini molto probabilmente poi l'opera age Complete dalle figure dell'Inverno e dell'Estate ma la mancanza dei Frammenti rende l'interpretazione difficoltosa.

- 18) عصر Nel peristilio collocata anche una meridiana، ritrovata però in un magazzino، in quanto la villa، al momento dell'eruzione، عصر في ristrutturazione، ed è stata Successivamente riposta nella sua posizione originaria.


بيرسو تشي موزرا ميدوسا
(1) بيرسو تشي موسترا ميدوسا

Di squisita fattura e quasi un po 'sorniona. Infatti Perseo ha una strana espressione pacifica e piuttosto benevola، mentre Medusa sembra la testa di una bambina un po 'proccupata della sua sorte.

Niente di cui stupirsi، perchè gli artisti migliori in epoca romana si arrogavano il diritto di dare ai miti Interpretazioni molto personali. Soprattutto si divertivano a creare espressioni eloquenti sullanimo deiprotagonisti o sull'animo dello spettatore. ما أنشي أنا بروبريتاري بوتيفانو يفضل إسبرسيوني هادئ في شخصيتك أون بو 'tormentati.



(2) Affresco di Offerente

L'immagine dell'affresco Mostra una donna con i Capelli raccolti، con una veste lونجa violacea e un mantello azzurro. La veste le lascia un seno scoperto، indossa una cintura dorata e reca nella mano sinistra una patera con offerte alla divinità، probabilmente frutta، e con destra reca una brocca che probabilmente contiene del vino.

Deve trattarsi della copia di un dipinto molto più antico. Lo testimoniano cose المتنوع: il fatto che non abbia il capo coperto، il fatto che abbia il seno scoperto assolutamente scandaloso per i romani، e il fatto che sul braccio sinistro alzato il carico pesante.

نيسونو أوجي كاريشيريبي سول براشيو سينسترو أون بيزو ، لكل كوانت ليجيرو ، ريتو بير دال براتشيو بيغاتو ، معلم كاريشيبي ، بيسو سول براشيو تدمير. La brocca seppure piena، a braccio disteso، risulterebbe più leggera di un peso a braccio piegato.
في epoche più arcaiche gli umani avevano braccio، mano e gamba sinistra dominanti، conseguenza dell'incrocio col cervello in cui l'emisfero destro period ancora spreadente.

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ERMES PSICOPOMPO (12)

(12) إرميس بسيكوبومبو

L'affresco، di età flavia، عصر Collocato nella zona centrale dell'ultimo scomparto del soffitto del secondo peristilio della Villa، rinvenuto sotto forma di Frammenti nel 1952، a seguito degli scavi archeologici voluti da Libero d'Orsi. Dopo essere stato ricomposto، fu Conservato nell'Antiquarium Stabiano.

L'affresco ha una composizione piramidale، priva di cinografia ambientale، إمبيرناتا سولا فيجورا برينسيال، كويلا دي إيرمز (ميركوريو)، posta al centro della scena e seduto su di una seggiola، e rappresentato con le caratteristiche di psicopompo، con petaso viaggio a falde lunghe) e caduceo (bastone alato con due serpenti attorcigliati) ، مانو نيلا مانو ديترا ريج أون أوينوشو (praticamente una brocca) ، تشي بوجيا سول جينوتشيو.

Lo pscicopompo è una sorta di demone che fa da intermediario e traghettatore tra il mondo sensibile ed il mondo sovrasensibile، soprattut to connectagna nell'Ade le anime dei morti. Il Dio è avvolto da un mantello، che sembrerebbe rosso، gonfiato dal vento. Ai suoi lati، ma più in basso، sono presenti due figure femminili، poggiate al sedile، con capelli raccolti، mantelli mossi dal vento e sguardo، come quello del Dio، rivolto verso destra: la donna alla sinistra reca in mano una lira، forse أونا موسى.

"La ricostruzione dell'Irpinia fu uno dei peggiori esempi di speculazione politica. Dalle inchieste della magistratura emersero dirottamenti politici di fondi verso aree che non ne avevano diritto، moltiplicando il numero dei comuni colpiti.

Alle aree colpet، vennero destinati ben 5.640 miliardi، ma la ricostruzione fu per decenni incompleta. A Torre Annunziata Attualmente esistono due quartieri distrutti dal terremoto del 1980، che malgrado le ingenti somme di denaro، 11،5 milioni di euro، non sono a oggi mai stati fullati.
La ricostruzione venne stimrata sul rilancio industriale su un paese totalmente agricolo، con permese che valirono subito dopo average intascato i Contributi.

في سيت آني ، فينتيسي بانش أبريونو جلي سبورتيلي نيلا زونا تيرماتا. Secondo la Corte dei Conti ، تكلفة البنية التحتية crebbero fino a & # 171 27 volte rispetto a quelli previsti nelle enjoyzioni originarie & # 187.

La prima stima dei danni del terremoto، fatta nel 1981 dall'ufficio dello Stato، Age di 8.000 miliardi di lire (حوالي 4000 يورو)، ma Arrivò a 60.000 miliardi di lire nel 2000، e 32 miliardi di euro nel 2008. Attualizzandola al 2010 ، la stima، dai 4000 يورو iniziali، supererebbe i 66 miliardi di euro. "
Ora si spiega perchè ci si mette tanto a ripristinare le zone Archeologiche terremotate.

L'affresco، di m 114x100، fu dipinto all'inizio dell'epoca flavia، (69-96 dc)، sul soffitto del secondo peristilio della Villa، rinvenuto in Frammenti a seguito dello scavo del 1952 da parte di Libero D'Orsi، كويندي ريكومبوستو إي ريستوراتو إد إنفين كونسرفاتو all'interno dell'Antiquarium stabiano

لابوتيوسي دي أتينا (11)
L'affresco Presenta un fondo verde con al centro una figura femminile con il capo cinto da una corona d'alloro che reca nella mano destra un ramo con aculei، mentre nella sinistra regge con un'asta uno scudo.

Dietro di lei si erge Minerva، che con la mano destra si calza l'elmo con penne sulla testa، mentre tiene la mano sinistra sul petto.

I Capelli che escono dall'elmo سونو دي كولور جيالو أورو ، معلم il volto è girato verso destra ، abbassato ، con espressione malinconica.

Sul lato sinistro c'è la parte di un'altra figura non Identificata.

يلمح Nostro avviso l'affresco all'anno dei quattro imperatori، cioè al 69، anno in cui regnarono quattro imperatori: Galba، Successo a Nerone suicida، in carica dal giugno 68، Otone، Vitellio e Vespasiano، che regnò per dieci anni.

Probabilmente l'affresco riproduce la tristezza dell'epoca data dal susseguirsi delle guerre civili، cioè romani contro romani.

La Figura cinta d'alloro è la Nike che in genere porta l'alloro al vincitore ma è ella stessa laureata.

Sin dall'antica Grecia Nike è strettamente Associata ad Atena، la Dea della guerra، a volte sulla mano stessa della Dea، pronta a spiccare il volo per laureare il generale dell'esercito vincitore، chiunque esso sia.

Stavolta però non consegna al vincitore la corona d'alloro ma un ramo irto di aculei، perchè il vincitore sarà a sua volta vinto e subirà gravi pene، come accadde ai tre imperatori fino all'arrivo di Vespasiano، valente generale ed uomilo equibrato sag .

Il fatto che tenga lo scudo con un'asta most not desidera imbracciarlo di alcuno ، تعال إلى aspettasse tempi migliori per schierarsi con un imperatore che finalmente rappresenti degnamente Roma.

AFFRESCO DI IPPOLITO (17)
L'affresco risale all seconda metà del I secolo a.c.، in piena età neroniana ed age posto su una parete del triclinio، la stessa stanza dove si trova l'affresco che dà il nome alla villa. Fu rinvenuto durante gli scavi archeologici effettuati a partire dal 1950 da Libero D'Orsi، sotto forma di Frammenti e quindi pazientemente e magistralmente ricomposto e Conservato nell'Antiquarium stabiano.

Lo tramanda Euripide nell'opera: إيبوليتو. Questi disprezzò le attenzioni di Afrodite optando per Artemide (Diana) e، per vendetta، e Afrodite (venere)، per venere fece sì che la sua matrigna، Fedra، si innamorasse di lui، sapendo che Ippolito l'avrebbe respinta.

Fedra si vendica di Ippolito suicidandosi e، nella sua lettera di addio، rivela a Teseo، suo marito e padre di Ippolito، che suo figlio l'aveva violata. Ippolito، vincolato da un giuramento a non menzionare l'amore di Fedra per lui، tace، e Teseo lo maledice.

Il personaggio è raffigurato in procinto di partire per una patuta di caccia، vestito con una clamide di color porpora، lo sguardo rivolto verso destra e con il viso، quasi stupito، i cui tratti somatici risultano essere molto marcati: grando carnosa folta capigliatura، che si discosta dal classico III stile.

IL PLANISFERO DELLE STAGIONI (14)
Tutta la scena che contorna Ippolito è andata perduta، anche se nel lato destro si intravede l'uscita di un palazzo e in quello sinistro la nutrice con Fedra، la matrigna che accusò ingiustamente il figliastro di Averle fatto violenza.


(14) Il Planisfero delle stagioni

L'affresco، realizzato durante l'età flavia، quindi nel I sec. العاصمة ، العصر dipinto sotto al soffitto del portico che circondava il secondo peristilio di Villa San Marco. Esso fu rinvenuto sotto forma di Frammenti nel 1952، a seguito degli scavi archeologici promossi dallo studioso Libero D'Orsi e quindi Restaurato e Conservato nell'Antiquarium stabiano.

L'affresco raffigura un globo su di un fondo scuro ed al suo interno sono effigiate due sfere che si intersecano negli assi. Le sfere sono mosse da due figure femminili، la Primavera e l'Autunno، aiutate da alcuni eroti.

La mancanza di buona metà della raffigurazione ne ha reso difficile l'interpretazione: tuttavia quella maggiormente sostenuta è che si tratti della sfera armillare، un modello della sfera celeste المبتكر dallo studioso greco Eratostene nel 255 a.c ..

- il coluro solstiziale، che è il Meridiano della volta celeste passante per i poli celesti e i punti solstiziali، cioè il primo punto del Cancro (punto del solstizio d'estate) e il primo punto del Capricorno (punto del solstizio.

Nell'affresco le sfere rappresentano l'equatore ed un Meridiano ، spostati dalla personificazione delle stagioni tutta l'opera è circondata da una cornice rossa con decorazione gialle.


الكتاب المقدس

- Libero D'Orsi - Gli scavi di Stabiae ، Monografie - Ministero per i beni Culturali ed ambientali - Soprintendenza archeologica di Pompei - Edizioni Quasar - 1996 -
- ألفونسو دي فرانسيسيس - إركولانو إي ستابيا - معهد جيوغرافيكو دي أجوستيني - 1974 -
- ألفونسو دي فرانسيسيس - لوحات فنية وفسيفساء في بومبي هيركولانوم ستابيا - كاسا ديل جيورنال - نابولي -

- لورانس ريتشاردسون - كتالوج لرسامي شخصيات يمكن التعرف عليهم من بومبي وهيركولانيوم وستابيا القديمة - بالتيمور - مطبعة جامعة جونز هوبكنز - 2000 -


Oplontis | Stabiae | Boscoreale | سفريات روما - سفريات روما | الصفحة الرئيسية | دليل روما | روما تورز | روما ترافيل | الأعياد الدينية | حج ايطاليا | رحلات شور إيطاليا

سمع معظم الناس عن بومبي فقط ، وفي بعض الحالات سمعوا عن هيركولانيوم أيضًا. نعم انه صحيح. ليس خطأ! نحن هنا أيضًا من أجل هذا!
على عكس صفحة الويب المخصصة لبومبي وهيركولانيوم ، قررنا أن نقدم للجمهور قليلاً ما كانت هذه المواقع الثلاثة ، مما يمنحك نوعًا من المقدمة السريعة.

هدفنا الرئيسي ، بخلاف القيام بإحدى هذه الرحلات ، هو توعية الناس بالتراث القديم المذهل حول جبل فيزوف (& quot؛ منطقة فيسوفيان & quot). المواقع الثلاثة هي جزء من & quotتحت السن القانوني & quot إيطاليا ، على الرغم من أنها لا تحتوي على مسارح رائعة أو طرق كبيرة ، إلا أنها ليست أقل إثارة للاهتمام نظرًا للجودة المذهلة للحفاظ على أبنيةها وجدرانها الجدارية والفسيفساء.

Oplontis , Boscoreale و ستابيا : منتجعات أرستقراطية حقيقية بها الكثير من الفيلات الرومانية على بعد خطوة من بومبي.

من بين الفيلات والمنتجعات المذكورة أعلاه ، توجد بعض اللوحات الجدارية الرومانية القديمة والفسيفساء والتماثيل في متحف نابولي الأثري. البعض الآخر منتشر في المتاحف في الخارج.


Oplontis , Stabiae و Boscoreale كانت المناطق السكنية للأثرياء الرومان.
إذا أتيحت لك الفرصة لزيارة بومبي بالفعل ، فستظل راضيًا تمامًا وستقول إننا قمنا بعمل جيد في تقديم هذا الاقتراح لك.
إذا لم تقم بزيارة بومبي من قبل ، بعد القيام بجولة في Stabiae أو Oplontis أو Boscoreale ، ستبدو بومبي أقل جمالا مما هي عليه.


أ فرضية : رحلاتنا ليست رخيصة . الفاخرة فقط مع الأشخاص المستهدفين. تم القيام بذلك من أجل اختيار عملائنا. هذا هو سبب عدم مغادرة جولاتنا يوميًا ولكن فقط عند الطلب.

أحد الاختلافات بين أدلةنا والخدمات المقدمة هو أنه لا يمكن مقارنتها بـ جولات يومية من روما التي تصل إلى هذه المنطقة وتجول لبضع ساعات فقط مع 40 شخصًا غير معروف في جولة جماعية. أو لا يمكن مقارنتها بـ رحلات شاطئية رخيصة الذين ينزلون 2.000 شخص في وقت واحد ويفعلون نفس الأشياء في نفس الوقت. لا ، هذا ليس شيئًا أرادت شركة روما للسفريات التعامل معه.

هذا هو السبب الذي يجعلنا نرغب أيضًا في الترويج لهذه المناطق الثلاثة ، كونها مسارات بعيدة بعض الشيء وبعيدًا عن جحافل السياح الذين يتفضلون & quinvade & quot؛ مواقع إيطاليا الكبرى ، بومبي على وجه الخصوص.

أوبلونتيس - فيلا بوبيا - (توري أنونزياتا)


ال فيلا بوبايا في Oplontis (اليوم توري أنونزياتا) هو منزل كبير كان يملكه الإمبراطور نيرو ، واستخدمته زوجته الثانية المسماة Poppaea Sabina ، كمقر إقامتها الرئيسي عندما لا تكون في روما. تشير الأدلة الأثرية إلى أنه في وقت ثوران بركان فيزوف ، كانت الفيلا فارغة ، ويجري إعادة بنائها ، ربما في أعقاب الزلزال الذي وقع عام 62 م.

تعد اللوحات الجدارية التي تزين الجدران من بين أفضل اللوحات الجدارية الإمبراطورية الرومانية المحفوظة ، من حيث الشكل واللون. نجا سطح المبنى إلى حد كبير من الثوران ، وبالتالي قام بحماية العناصر. توجد اللوحات الجدارية على طراز بومبييان الثاني ، مع هندسة معمارية مزيفة بنوافذ يبدو أنها تفتح على مناظر أو مناظر لأعمدة trompe-l'oeil ، وهي تعهدات طموحة ، بعد سقوط روما ، لن تتساوى في إيطاليا حتى القرن السادس عشر (عصر النهضة) زمن).

ال كالداريوم : بالقرب من فيلا تم اكتشافها مؤخرًا L. Crassius Tertius اكتشفت في عام 1974. ختم برونزي عثر عليه في الموقع يعطي اسم مالكه الأخير. هذه الفيلا ، التي كانت تحتوي على عدد كبير من القوارير ، لم تكن مهجورة في وقت الثوران: إلى جانب جثث الضحايا التعساء ، تم العثور هناك أيضًا على العملات المعدنية والمجوهرات.


STABIAE : منطقة منتجع روماني قديم فاخر دمرت مرتين


ستابيا كان في الأصل ميناء صغيرًا ، يقع بالقرب من مدينة كاستيلاماري دي ستابيا الحديثة ، على بعد كيلومترات قليلة من بومبي.
دمرت المدينة مرتين: لوسيوس كورنيليوس سيلا في 89 قبل الميلاد. خلال الحرب الاجتماعية وبحلول اندلاع عام 79 م. بعد التدمير الأول ، أعيد بناء Stabiae وأصبح منتجعًا شهيرًا للأثرياء الرومان ، وفقًا للمؤلف الروماني والأدميرال بليني الأكبر. وذكر أن هناك عدة أميال من الفيلات الفاخرة التي بنيت على طول حافة الرأس ، مفضلة لإطلالاتها على خليج نابولي.

ستابيا كانت معروفة أيضًا بجودة مياه الينابيع الطبيعية. وبالتالي فإن هذا الموقع المثالي جعل العديد من الرومان الأثرياء يبنون فيلاتهم الفاخرة على التلال المطلة على الخليج. توفر لنا هذه الفيلات ، الموضحة أدناه ، بعضًا من أعظم الآثار المعمارية والفنية للفيلات الرومانية. عدد كبير من القطع الأثرية التي تأتي من Stabiae موجودة الآن في نابولي ، المتحف الأثري الوطني. إذا أردت ، انقر فوق الصور لتكبير الصور.


Restoring an Ancient Community with 21st Century Technology: Stabiae, Italy

Since 2004, the University of Maryland’s Architecture Program has been a major player in uncovering one of the largest excavation sites in the ancient world: the Roman villas of Stabiae. Located on the western coast of Italy, Stabiae was a holiday mainstay for the Roman elite prior to the devastating eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, which buried the resort in over two meters of volcanic ash in 79 AD. For more than 10 summers, architecture students have travelled from College Park to the coastal town as part of the Restore Ancient Stabiae Foundation (RAS), a non-profit archaeological organization founded in 2004 by the University of Maryland, the Superintendency of Archaeology of Pompeii and the region of Campania. During that time, student teams, working with scholars and archeological professionals from around the world have successfully excavated and documented several of the site’s Roman gardens, courtyards and villas, including the Villa Arianna, known for its stunning frescos and private tunnel to the seashore.

Excavation work at Stabiae is painstaking and time-consuming. To add to the intrigue, once a portion of the site is unearthed, students must quickly draw and document the cultural resources before they are altered by the elements. For this reason, time is the student’s biggest enemy, and unfortunately, the task is neither simple nor speedy constructing renderings of just one villa wall can take days. This was probably evident to no one more than Luke Petrocelli, an architecture graduate student who has spent his past six summers in Stabiae. So last year, Luke embarked on a quest to research, and ultimately convince administration to invest in mapping technology that will not only change the way UMD students explore excavation sites all over the world, but squarely place UMD as an educational authority in archeological documentation.

The University of Maryland is one of a handful of universities joining what many experts are calling a “revolution” in archaeological exploration and understanding: using Light Detection and Ranging, or LiDAR, to uncover and document the world’s ancient treasures. LiDAR is a remote sensing technology that measures distance by illuminating a target with a laser and analyzing the reflected light. It is widely used in geology, agriculture and by law enforcement you can thank LiDAR the next time you are clocked over the speed limit with a speed gun. And while LiDAR has been increasingly used over the past decade in archeology, its cost-prohibitive nature has made it unavailable for most scholarly work.

“While LiDAR has been around a long time, it has been historically expensive, complicated and frankly, a bit cumbersome,” explains Professor Lindley Vann. “Updates in the past decade have definitely made it more accessible, but what really made this work for Maryland was the cross-discipline commitment to invest in the technology.”

To make his case, Luke organized a demonstration by FARO Technologies, an Ohio-based LiDAR company in the winter of 2014, with Dr. Vann’s support and help. Knowing the implications that the technology could have across many disciplines, Luke and Dr. Vann cast a wide net, inviting students, faculty and administrators from architecture, humanities, preservation and anthropology.

“I knew it was a good idea, so I just had to convince everyone,” said Luke. “Just the excitement from the demo alone did the trick.”

David Cronrath, working with Dr. Mark Leone of the Anthropology Department, and Dr. Gregory Ball, Dean of the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, green lit the purchase by spring.

The first trial, which took place this past summer in Stabiae, almost didn’t happen. An expedited package from FARO to College Park was then hand-carried to Rome by Professor of Architecture Matt Bell, who was in the city, briefly, for a conference. Luke and his team had a tight window before the machine had to go back to College Park with Professor Vann, who was leaving in three days. During that time, Luke traveled to Rome, picked up the machine, trained himself and his team and successfully mapped the entirety of the Villa San Marco.

As to what would have happened without the machine?

“It would have taken the rest of my life,” laughs Luke. “And the project wouldn’t have been as good. We had a near perfect record in a matter of hours.”

This near-perfect record has broad applications for RAS and for future scholars. Its wide accessibility is a game changer anyone who wants to study the villa now can, thanks to its digital format. The specificity of the technology notices things unseen by the eye the pitch of a garden or wall patterns, for example, which can predict construction methods and dates of when the structures were built.

“I think it’s important to note that traditional methods of architectural and archeological surveys, like sketching, will remain a crucial part of discovery and documentation,” said Luke, who plans to accompany another group to Italy this summer. “In Stabiae, we start by teaching the older techniques and then teach the technology. Adding LiDAR is a great compliment to our preservation efforts, because it offers a perfect representation of the site.”

Equally important are the broad implications the technology has for UMD’s reputation in the field. It is so portable—about the size of a small suitcase—it can be used just about anywhere, from the ruins at Aperlae, Turkey, to an 18th century cemetery on the Eastern Shore. In a sense, LiDAR is carving out a nice niche for UMD’s team in an arena where so many top-level universities are lending their talents to the effort of preserving and documenting archeological sites, this technology is opening doors to collaboration with other institutions and making UMD a leader in archaeological documentation.

“Right now UMD is building a reputation on site as the recording team,” says Luke. “So if say, Columbia University or another group is excavating or researching something in particular, they will need to have it recorded. We draw and record in order to understand, and that’s becoming UMD’s specialty.”


Excavation Stabia

Despite originally being discovered in 1749, Stabiae was only completed excavated in 1950, upon which archeologists found the remains of not one, but two ancient civilizations. The older of the two civillisations was that of the Oscan people, who lived there between the 7th and 3rd centuries BC. The main remains from this Italian tribe are contained in a necropolis which houses over 300 tombs.

However, the more famous ruins at Stabiae are the Roman villas which were constructed there in around 89 BC when the town became something of a Roman holiday resort. Amongst these are the 11,000 square foot Villa San Marco with its beautiful frescos and mosaics, Villa Arianna – so named for its magnificent fresco of Ariadne being saved by Dionysus – with its underground tunnel and Villa Del Pastore, which was most likely a bath house.

Stabiae is far less well-known than Pompeii, but offers visitors a great tour of authentic Roman ruins in a quieter environment.

CASTELLAMMARE DI STABIA
Via Passeggiata Archeologica

“Stabiae is the ancient Latin name for the city of Castellammare di Stabia, which lies between Pompeii and Sorrento. “

Tickets

from November to March
8:30 – 17:00 (last entrance at 15:30)

from April to October
8:30 – 19:30 (last entrance at 18:00)

last admission one hour and a half before closing

Among the many villas found at Stabiae, the most famous are Villa San Marco, Villa Del Pastore, and Villa Arianna. Some of the other villas include Villa Carmiano, Villa del Petraro, and Villa Capella di San Marco.

Villa San Marco

This villa, deriving the name from a chapel that existed in its proximity in the 18th century, was the first one to be explored in the course of excavations in Bourbon times carried out between 1749 and 1754. The graphic and textual documentation of the Bourbon surveys was published in 1881 by M. Ruggiero M. in the book Degli Scavi di Stabiae dal 1749 al 1782 (“On the Stabiae excavations from 1749 to 1782”). The villa was re-buried after the removal of its furnishings and of the better preserved frescoes. Excavations were resumed on 1950 by Libero d’Orsi and O. Elia of the Archaeological Superintendency.

One of the largest villas ever discovered in Campania, measuring more than 11,000 square metres, it has an atrium, a courtyard containing a pool, a triclinium with views of the bay, and a colonnaded courtyard. There are also many other small rooms, a kitchen and two internal gardens. Villa San Marco also has a private bath complex that is made up of a calidarium, tepidarium, and afrigidarium. This villa is also important because it has provided frescoes, sculptures, mosaics and architecture, which show styles and themes comparable to those found in Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Villa del Pastore

“Villa of the Shepherd” in English. This villa gets its name from a small statue of a shepherd that was discovered at this site.

This villa measures even larger than Villa San Marco, coming in at 19,000 square metres. The villa was rediscovered in 1967 and includes many rooms, large baths and luxurious gardens. It lacks, however, any domestic rooms, suggesting that it may not have been a residence. One hypothesis is that this is instead avaletudinarium (health spa) that would have allowed people to take advantage of the famous spring waters of Stabiae. It has not yet been fully excavated.

Villa Arianna

Named for the fresco depicting Dionysus saving Ariadne from the island of Dia (a mythological name for Naxos), this villa is particularly famous for its frescoes, many of which depict light, winged figures. It is difficult to get a clear sense of this villa, however, because it grew over the course of 150 years. It has one of the largest courtyards of any Roman villa measuring two stadia in length. Another feature of Villa Arianna is its private tunnel system that links the villa in its location on the ridge to the sea shore, which was probably only between 100 and 200 metres away from the bottom of the hill in Roman times. The shoreline has since changed, leaving the archaeological site further inland than it was in antiquity.

The archaeological remains of Stabiae were originally discovered in 1749 by Cavaliere Rocco de Alcubierre, an engineer working for king Charles VII of Naples. These ruins were partially excavated by Alcubierre with help from Karl Weberbetween 1749–1782. The ruins that had been excavated, however, were reburied and their location was forgotten until 1950, when a high school principal rediscovered them. The site was declared an archaeological protected area in 1957, and by 1962 many of the ruins had been again uncovered. The remains of both an Oscan settlement (oppidum) and the later Roman town were discovered.

The most famous of the findings at Stabiae are the villas that come from the time between the destruction of Stabiae by Sulla in 89 BC and the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD. As described above, Stabiae became a resort town during this time and was particularly favored for its view of the Bay of Naples and the surrounding mountains.Stabiae was also well known for the quality of its spring water, which was believed to have medicinal properties.The ideal placement and qualities of this location drew many wealthy Romans to build luxurious villas on the ridge overlooking the bay. These villas, which are described below, provide us with some of the most stunning architectural and artistic remains from Roman villas. 2004 saw an Italian-American collaboration between the Superintendency of Archaeology of Pompeii, the region of Campania and the University of Maryland to form the non-profit Archaeological entity, the Restoring Ancient Stabiae Foundation (RAS). It is the RAS Foundation’s prime goal to excavate, restore and build an archaeological park at the ancient site of Stabiae, a complex of seven or eight Roman villas according to recent geophysical surveys conducted by the University of Birmingham.

A great many artifacts which come from Stabiae are preserved in the Naples National Archaeological Museum.


Centaurs in Myth and Art

Centaurs are thought of in many Greek myths as being as wild as untamed horses, and were said to have inhabited the region of Magnesia and Mount Pelion in Thessaly, the Foloi oak forest in Elis, and the Malean peninsula in southern Laconia. The most common theory holds that the idea of centaurs came from the first reaction of a non-riding culture, as in the Minoan Aegean world, to nomads who were mounted on horses. The theory suggests that such riders would appear as half-man, half-animal. Bernal Díaz del Castillo reported that the Aztecs also had this misconception about Spanish cavalrymen. The Lapith tribe of Thessaly, who were the kinsmen of the Centaurs in myth, were described by Greek writers as the inventors of horse-riding.

The Centaurs are best known for their fight with the Lapiths who, according to one origin myth, would have been cousins to the centaurs. The battle, called the Centauromachy, was caused by the centaurs' attempt to carry off Hippodamia and the rest of the Lapith women on the day of Hippodamia's marriage to Pirithous, who was the king of the Lapithae and a son of Ixion. The hero Theseus was present and helped the Lapiths by assisting Pirithous in driving off the centaurs. Another Lapith hero, Caeneus, who was invulnerable to weapons, was beaten into the earth by Centaurs wielding rocks and the branches of trees. In her article "The Centaur: Its History and Meaning in Human Culture," Elizabeth Lawrence claims that the contests between the centaurs and the Lapiths typify the struggle between civilization and barbarism.

Though female centaurs, called centaurides or centauresses, are not mentioned in early Greek literature and art, they do appear occasionally in later antiquity. A Macedonian mosaic of the 4th century BCE is one of the earliest examples of the centauress in art. Ovid also mentions a centauress named Hylonomei who committed suicide when her husband Cyllarus was killed in the war with the Lapiths.

Mycenaean pottery found at Ugarit (in modern Syria) is thought to depict centaurs and suggests the myth originated in the Bronze Age. In Greek art of the Archaic period, centaurs are depicted in three different forms. Some centaurs are depicted with a human torso attached to the body of a horse at the withers, where the horse's neck would be. This form, designated "Class A" by Professor Paul Baur, later became standard. "Class B" centaurs are depicted with a human body and legs joined at the waist to the hindquarters of a horse. In some cases centaurs of both Class A and Class B appear together. A third type, designated "Class C", depicts centaurs with human forelegs terminating in hooves. Baur describes this as an apparent development of Aeolic art (from northwest Asia Minor and some of the offshore islands including Lesbos), which never became particularly widespread. At a later period, paintings on some amphorae depict winged centaurs.


Atrium of Villa San Marco in Stabiae - History

Villa Arianna è la villa d'otium più antica di Stabia, risalente al II secolo a.c., e insieme a Villa San Marco, fa parte del complesso archeologico dell’antica Stabiae, che è l’antico nome dell’insediamento sito nella parte più interna e meridionale del Golfo di Napoli, oggi assimilabile con la moderna città di Castellammare di Stabia.

FLORA
Gli Scavi Archeologici di Stabiae (Villa San Marco, Villa Arianna, Secondo Complesso) si trovano a Castellammare di Stabia in via Passeggiata Archeologica 11.

La villa subì lo stesso destino di Villa San Marco: dopo essere stata, anche se in minima parte, razziata degli affreschi e dei mosaici e pure deliberatamente danneggiata, venne rinterrata.

Lo scavo a quei tempi era condotto attraverso esplorazioni sotterranee che prevedevano solo il recupero degli oggetti e non l'indagine del contesto architettonico: per cui le suppellettili e gli affreschi meglio conservati vennero prelevati e inviati al Museo Borbonico presso il Palazzo Reale di Portici.

AFFRESCO DI NETTUNO AMIMONE

Venne poi portato in luce durante gli scavi degli anni 󈧶, fortemente voluti dall'illuminato preside Libero D’Orsi. Questi effettuò gli scavi di ambienti della villa che si affacciavano sul ciglio della collina, alcuni dei quali andati perduti a seguito di eventi franosi.

Dell'edificio, di cui una gran parte risulta ancora interrata, conosciamo la pianta redatta in epoca borbonica attraverso i rilievi fatti nei cunicoli scavati e successivamente ricolmati. La villa occupa un'area di circa undicimila mq ma l'area scavata si estende per circa 2500 mq, con una pianta piuttosto complessa, sia perchè frutto di successivi ampliamenti, sia perché si adatta alla conformazione della collina di cui segue l'andamento.

DECORAZIONE PARIETALE

DESCRIZIONE

La villa è collegata con la pianura sottostante attraverso una serie di rampe su sei livelli, ed è articolata in vari nuclei:

- atrio e ambienti circostanti di età tardo-repubblicana di tipo “tuscanico”, cioè senza colonne, con “impluvium”, pavimento a mosaico e pareti affrescate, oltre a due cubicula decorati in II Stile

- ambienti di servizio e termali con la classica sequenza di calidarium – tiepidarium – frigidarium, e ambienti di servizio tra cui una stalla e persino una peschiera

- ambienti ai lati del triclinio estivo, di età neroniana, adiacenti ad ambienti panoramici terrazzati. Nella parte del “triclinium è affrescata l'Epifania di Dioniso ad Arianna e in quella destra Ganimede rapito dall'aquila.

- Da qui si accede a un quartiere di quattro ambienti con un corridoio dalle pareti dipinte di rosso la prima stanza presenta due ritratti di giovani sullo sfondo di prospettive architettoniche, mentre il delicato ritratto di una fanciulla all'interno di un tondo è in attesa di collocazione nel nuovo Antiquarium.

ATRIO
- la grande palestra annessa in età flavia, un grande peristilio ovvero uno spazio di grosse dimensioni (180 x 81 m) con oltre cento colonne rivestite di stucco bianco, che vennero seriamente danneggiate dal terremoto dell’Irpinia del 1980.

- Una lunga galleria, inoltre, partendo dalle rampe sottopassava gli ambienti residenziali per giungere nella parte rustica dove vi era l'accesso alla 'villa' dal pianoro di Varano. Il corridoio porta a due"cubicula” con vista sui monti, decorati e pavimentati con mosaico a tessere bianche e nere.

- La quarta stanza, di soggiorno, presenta piastrelle dipinte al di sopra di una zoccolatura rossa. I due ambienti successivi hanno pavimento a mosaico, zoccolature e decorazioni alle pareti, con finestre che si aprono sul mare e sul monte Faìto.

Negli ultimi anni, la villa è stata interessata da nuove indagini archeologiche che hanno permesso il rinvenimento di numerosi ambienti della zona dell’atrio e un giardino di grosse dimensioni (110 x 55 mt).

AFFRESCO DI ARIANNA
Le decorazioni sono, non solo ricche, ma anche raffinate, nei piccoli ambienti di soggiorno prevale, il gusto per una decorazione miniaturistica, con piccole figure volanti, amorini, personaggi mitologici, quadretti di paesaggi, maschere, busti di personaggi entro medaglioni.

Villa Arianna ha fornito gli affreschi più belli e conosciuti dell’arte antica, tra cui Leda e il Cigno, Medea, Diana, la famosissima Flora o Primavera e la Venditrice di Amorini, rinvenuta nel 1759.

AFFRESCO A FIGURE NERE
Questa venne presa a modello dal gusto neoclassico dell’epoca e riprodotta quasi in serie come soggetto decorativo su porcellane, quadri e stampe, tanto che gli artisti di allora attirarono le critiche di Charles Boudelaire per la “mancanza di originalità”, forse con una punta di invidia.

Negli ambienti di maggiori dimensioni e nei saloni, invece, sono rappresentati prevalentemente temi mitologici con figure quasi a grandezza naturale ispirati a Dioniso, come il quadro raffigurante 'Arianna abbandonata da Teseo' nella parete di fondo del triclinio. I pavimenti sono decorati con bei mosaici, a tessere bianche e nere sviluppantesi in vari motivi.

PLANIMETRIA DELLA VILLA

Ci sono anche numerose aree di servizio comprendenti stalle e fabbricati agricoli, posti al limite sud-est della proprietà. Come la maggior parte delle ville dell'ozio, essa si valeva pure di una parte coltivata e redditizia, data la straordinaria fertilità del suolo e la straordinaria qualità dei prodotti.


BIBLIO

- Arnold De Vos Mariette De Vos - Pompei, Ercolano, Stabia - Roma - Editori Laterza - 1982 -
- Alfonso De Franciscis - Ercolano e Stabia - Novara - Istituto geografico De Agostini - 1974 -
- Domenico Camardo - Antonio Ferrata, Nicola Longobardi - Stabiae: le ville - Napoli - Biblioteca del Clero della Chiesa del Gesù - 1989 -
- Libero D'Orsi, Antonio Carosella, Vincenzo Cuccurullo - Gli scavi di Stabiae: giornale di scavo - Roma - Quasar - 1996 -
- Libero D'Orsi - Come ritrovai l'antica Stabia - Napoli - Rinascita Artistica - 1956 -


St. Andrew’s School

Students and faculty traveled to Italy over Spring Break, and explored sites of ancient history throughout the country. Trip leader and classics teacher Phil Walsh wrote the following diary (with photos!) of the group's experiences for parents and faculty while they traveled.

28 فبراير

We had a very smooth flight into Frankfurt and then Naples, and this afternoon, with perfect weather conditions, we visited Cumae (pictures below). The students marveled at the natural beauty of this sanctuary site, and we talked about various mythological figures who are attached to this ancient place: Aeneas, the hero of Vergil&rsquos Aeneid divine Apollo and his twin sister Artemis and the master builder, Daedalus. Not pictured are a friendly dog who followed us around while we walked the site and various skink-like lizards whom the students enjoyed pointing out&hellip We just finished a hearty meal at our hotel, and we are all ready for bed. In the morning we will hike Mt. Vesuvius and travel to Herculaneum, one of the towns buried by the eruption in 79 AD.

The group, a little bleary-eyed, in front of the Cave of the Sibyl at Cumae:

All of us, overlooking the coast at Cumae:

We had a great day of exploration and wonder. In the morning we visited Villa San Marco at Stabiae, on the south side of the Bay of Naples. This large and beautiful mansion was built during the Augustan era (c. 27 BC-14 AD), and its opulence was truly impressive. We then drove to Mt. Vesuvius and climbed to the summit (elevation around 4,000 feet - see pictures below). It was a thrilling experience for all, and while on site, we had the opportunity to read from an ancient letter describing the eruption of 79 AD. After lunch we toured the ancient city of Herculaneum, so well-preserved because it was buried by lava.

Tomorrow we visit Pompeii and the National Archaeological Museum of Naples, a world-class museum that holds much of what was found at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Hopefully we sleep well from all of the walking, climbing, and talking.

Here&rsquos a photo of Mt. Vesuvius from our hotel window this morning:

Here&rsquos a picture of us at the top:

Today was a full day of learning, walking, and eating. We spent the morning exploring the excavations of Pompeii. Among the highlights were experiencing the ancient theater and lingering in the Villa of the Mysteries, with its enigmatic &ldquofrieze&rdquo of frescos depicting the rituals of the god Dionysus. After a big lunch near Pompeii, which included a delicious dessert called sfogliatella, we drove to the National Archaeological Museum of Naples (MANN), which holds many of the artifacts found at Pompeii and Herculaneum. Finally, on the way back from dinner, we had our first taste of gelato!

Tomorrow we are taking a boat to visit the island of Capri. The weather should be ideal (around 65 degrees), and we&rsquoll stay quite busy.

Here&rsquos a picture of the students at Pompeii (with Mt. Vesuvius looming in the background):

We&rsquove been doing a lot of hiking, but today may have been a record. My phone estimates that we walked 10.5 miles or 24,132 steps! Almost all of that exercise occurred on the gorgeous island of Capri, about a 30-minute boat ride from the port city of Sorrento. We arrived in the mid-morning, bussed from the marina to the town center, and hiked to the Villa Iovis [Villa of Jove], where the Roman emperor Tiberius lived for over ten years. Along the way we stopped at Astarita Park, where all of us marveled at the quiet sublimity of the steep cliffs and azure water. In the afternoon we hiked down to Arco Naturale, a huge Paleolithic limestone formation, and to the Grotta of Matromania [the Cave of the Great Mother]. We ended the day in Anacapri, where we explored Villa San Michele, a beautiful house built by the Swedish doctor, Axel Munthe.

Tomorrow we drive to Rome, where we will visit the Colosseum and the Basilica of Saint Clement. It is also Piper&rsquos 16th birthday!

Our group in the town of Capri:

A view from Astarita Park (truly breathtaking!):

In the Cave of the Great Mother:

This morning we left the bay of Naples and arrived in Rome. After checking in to the hotel, we walked down to the Colosseum and explored this impressive Roman amphitheater. After refueling at a comfortable cafe (the coffee, hot chocolate, and fruit smoothies hit the spot!), we toured our first church, the Basilica of Saint Clement. The students then had some free time to wander before dinner, which allowed us some time to buy a chocolate-hazelnut cake and cannoli to celebrate Piper&rsquos 16th birthday.

Tomorrow we&rsquoll spend the day getting to know the city of Rome. Sites on the agenda include the Palatine Hill, the Roman Forum, the Pantheon, and the Piazza Navona.

Here is a picture of us enjoying dessert. Happy birthday, Piper!

It was another day of 25,000 steps! We made our way all around Rome, starting in the morning at the Palatine Hill and Roman Forum. After lunch we toured to Largo di Torre Argentina, where Julius Caesar was killed in 44 BC the Campo di Fiore, with its bustling daily market the Piazza Navona, famous for its grand fountain with obelisk the iconic Pantheon and the Ara Pacis [the Altar of Peace], a monument in honor of the emperor Augustus. The phrase of the day was &ldquocivic identity&rdquo: how ancient Rome understood itself through myth, ritual, and history and how it articulated this vision on its triumphal arches, temples, and public spaces. We had some great conversations inspired by what we saw and what we read&hellip In addition, we had the pleasure of meeting up with SAS sophomores Izzy Nielsen and Nia Cross, who happened to be around the Pantheon when we were!

Tomorrow we visit another one of Rome&rsquos seven hills: the Capitoline, with its famous museums. We will also walk around the Forum Boarium, Tiber Island, and Trastevere (Rome&rsquos version of Brooklyn).

Sitting on the Palatine Hill, talking about Romulus and Remus:

At a coffee shop with Izzy and Nia:

The English word, "museum,&rdquo derives from the Greek noun &mu&omicron&upsilon&sigma&epsilonῖ&omicron&nu, a place holy to the Muses. These &mu&omicron&upsilon&sigma&epsilonῖ&alpha can be schools of music, libraries, institutes of philosophy - in other words, places where we can "think with wonder." That phrase, which I borrow from Jane Austen&rsquos Pride and Prejudice, is how I would describe our Wednesday in Rome. We began at Villa Farnesina, a remarkable Renaissance villa full of beautiful mythological paintings. We then walked to the Capitoline Hill, where we explored the Capitoline Museums, home to so many world-famous pieces of art. After lunch in the Jewish Ghetto, we toured the Great Synagogue of Rome and learned about Jewish communities in the ancient and modern city. We ended the day by doing laundry and eating delicious pizza in Trastevere.

We are very much looking forward to tomorrow&rsquos agenda: the ancient Baths of Caracalla, the Keats-Shelley House, the Villa Borghese (Rome&rsquos Central Park), and the Galleria Borghese (a most spectacular museum). We&rsquoll also see the Trevi Fountain at night - always a special and memorable experience.

Seeing the Capitoline Lupa (wolf):

Inside the Great Synagogue of Rome:

At the risk of sounding repetitive, it was another amazing day of walking, talking, and learning. We started at the Aventine Hill, on the way to the Baths of Caracalla, a huge public bathing complex that dates from the 3rd century AD. We then had the opportunity to visit the Non-Catholic Cemetery, where the Romantic poet John Keats is buried, and where we studied two poems: Wordsworth&rsquos &ldquoThe World is Too Much with Us&rdquo and Oscar Wilde&rsquos &ldquoThe Grave of Keats.&rdquo After eating delicious panini from a well-known salumeria, we took the metro to the Spanish Steps and visited the Keats-Shelley House. From there we walked through the Villa Borghese to the Galleria Borghese all of us, I think, were stunned by the beautiful paintings and sculptures found in this museum. From Bernini&rsquos Daphne and Apollo to the Caravaggio Room, we experienced both awe and inspiration.

Tomorrow we will explore Vatican City: first touring St. Peter&rsquos Basilica and then the Vatican Museums. We anticipate&mdashwait for it&mdashan amazing day!

On the Aventine Hill this morning:

At the Non-Catholic Cemetery (I think this photo makes tangible what &ldquothinking with wonder&rdquo is. Piper happens to be sitting on the bench, but each student, it seems to me, has experienced a moment like this during our tour.)

As the ancient Greek philosopher, Diogenes, once wrote, &ldquoGive up philosophy because I&rsquom an old man? It&rsquos at the end of the race that you break into a burst of speed.&rdquo This idea fits the narrative of our trip. We walked at least 32,000 steps today, more than any other day thus far, and we thought big thoughts as we toured St. Peter&rsquos Basilica and the Vatican Museums. I was thinking about Diogenes because he lounges on the stairs below Aristotle in Raphael&rsquos masterpiece, The School of Athens. We saw this painting near the end of the day, and we were very fortunate to have the room essentially to ourselves. (Typically, it is overstuffed with visitors and quite noisy.) The Vatican Museums are spectacular, but we also had the opportunity to climb the 551 stairs to the top of St. Peter&rsquos Basilica. We enjoyed the view looking down at the nave of the church, as well as the views of Rome and Vatican City on the outside.

Tomorrow is our last full day in Italy, and we will visit Hadrian&rsquos Villa in modern Tivoli (about an hour outside of Rome). It should be a relaxing and fun-filled day, and I hope the students will begin to reflect on their experiences abroad.

A view from the top of St. Peter&rsquos:

Discussing the famous sculpture, Augustus of Prima Porta:

We spent a gorgeous day in the resort town of Tivoli, where the emperor Hadrian built a massive villa in the 2nd century AD. We walked around the remains and enjoyed the warm sun, and in the afternoon we toured the sublime Villa d&rsquoEste, known for its verdant gardens and grand fountains. Once we returned to Rome, we had a final meal downtown visited the Trevi Fountain, Pantheon, and Piazza Navona ate gelato one last time and walked back to the hotel.

We will depart from Rome tomorrow morning at 9:50 am, transfer at Frankfurt, and arrive in Philadelphia around 5:10 pm. We look forward to coming home, but Rome will always have a special place in our hearts.

This morning on the grounds of Hadrian&rsquos Villa:

We&rsquove had a long list of experiences since I last wrote you: visiting beautiful early modern villas in and around Rome, exploring more archaeological sites that I can remember, embracing the juxtaposition of old and new, seeing and discussing masterpieces of art and architecture, and reading poems and prose on the very sites that inspired them. It&rsquos been a life-affirming and life-changing experience for all involved.

We depart Rome this morning, but we return enriched and inspired. I know the students look forward to sharing their stories with you, and I want to thank Chris Sanchez for his hard work, energy, and generosity of spirit. Here is a final picture of the students in front of the Pantheon last night.


شاهد الفيديو: بلو سان ماركو (شهر اكتوبر 2021).